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Theory of relativity.- Atomic watches and the dilatation of time


We asked about the validity of the results obtained using atomic clocks, when trying to contrast the idea of the "Time Dilation"

As we will try to demonstrate, the idea of "time dilation" is a utopia that appears by a misinterpretation of a "mental experiment"

However, physical experiments performed with great precision, using atomic clocks, are interpreted as the occurrence of such fallacy ... What are we wrong? ... Do these physical experiments serve to corroborate the idea of "time dilation". .


To prove the invalidity of the concept of "time dilation" our study will consist of two parts.

In the first place, we will show that a misinterpretation of the "mental experiment" used leads to the said fallacy.

Second, we will demonstrate a misinterpretation of the result obtained in the verification of this phenomenon, by means of atomic clocks, leads to admitting the said fallacy.

We highlight the word INTERPRETATION.


In our exhibition we will use some of the Essays by the same author, which were edited long ago through the platform: "Monografías.Com". These topics will be expanded by adding new contributions.

To enter the mentioned texts will be given the corresponding links.

The present study serves as an agglutinator of several ideas that appeared in the aforementioned Essays and which, gathered as a single unit, lead us to the subject we want to expose.

Mental experiment that we will analyze

In this essay we will analyze one of the three "Mental Experiments" described in the books "On the theory of special and general relativity" by A. Einstein and also in the book by A. Einstein and Leopold Infeld "The evolution of physics".

The mental experiment we will take to comment will identify it as: the "Dilation of Time" also called the Train Wagon or the Mirror.

The proposed mental experiment in the approach to "time dilating"

This mental experiment, called the "train car" or also the mirror, has been intended to be used as an argument for the fallacy of "time dilation." In the present essay we intend to point out and point out the misinterpretations that lead to admitting the said fallacy.

In this experiment we will extract information from our essay

Relativity Theory and fallacy time dilate

(Posted 4-24-2014) Link: :

We detail below the titles of the paragraphs to read, which are related to this experiment

-Basic concepts

Dedicated to the reader not initiated in the subject

that concerns us

- What is meant by a Mental Experiment?       

- The mental experiment of the "Train wagon"

   Where it is explained and detailed with

    drawings what this approach consists of


The concept: SITUATION

In absolute space there are no predetermined addresses. Between two points of space we will give their relative position of one with respect to the other. We will define as the SITUATION of an Event when we give its POSITION regarding a point and the moment in which this occurs

Physical phenomen's image travel time

At this point we will NOT use the call to the link that we gave, but we give here directly the information on this topic:

If we want to obtain the relation that can exist between the time of observation of the ray (round and round) between that which will register the operator (O1), located inside the car, and the one that will register the fixed observer (O2), located in the ground , we will rely on the following two figures:

Figure 1 represents the situation in which the operator who is traveling above the car throws the ray of light. The condition of the wagon is that of moving with uniform and rectilinear motion. That is, it is an Inertial Reference System. This situation is equivalent, and this is intended to illustrate the drawing, if we consider that the wagon does not move. (Remember what is explained in "Basic Concepts of the aforementioned Essay, on the" first principle of relativity "or the" Principle of Relativity of Galileo "

The variable "d" indicates the distance from the floor to the roof of the car. The variable (c) is the speed of light.

It is evident that with this data the round trip time of the lightning, obtained inside the car or its equivalent, with the stationary car (tp) is calculated by: (tp) = (2 d) / c.

Figure 2 will be taken as a mathematical model to execute the calculations that we are going to carry out. We have drawn a right triangle on which we apply the theorem of Pythagoras.

The hypotenuse of this triangle represents the ascending portion of the ray; only the ascending segment. Therefore it only represents half of the total route. The total route would be the round trip of the thunderbolt. The variable (tr) means the Travel Time

The variable (td) drawn at the base of the triangle should be interpreted as the Train Wagon Offset Time at a speed (v).

It is evident that at any point in time between the beginning and the end of the ray observation, the time being timed should always be equal between the two paths: on the basis of the triangle and its hypotenuse. That is, it must always happen that:

(td) = (tr).

Given this equality, in the mathematical development that we will do next, it is indifferent to use the variable (tr) or the variable (td). We will use the variable (td). That is, where we would have to have incorporated the variable (tr) we will have replaced it with the variable (td)

In accordance with the above, we make the following statement:


The value (L) is known as LORENTZ FACTOR.

From its mathematical expression we can deduce that the value of the Lorentz Factor is always greater than unity: L> 1 (See Final Note)

As we have found that:

                                                 td = (L). tp


and as (L)> 1 it follows that:

                                                     td > tp


Looking at Figure 1 and Figure 2, we can express that:

The time of travel of the light beam (tp) observed by the operator above the wagon, which has fired the lightning, is less than the time (td) which computes a fixed observer at the beginning of the wagon path and which has observed the beginning and end of the beam path


This is the idea with which we must stay because it is intended to justify the FALACIA of the "dilation of time". With the use of this mental experiment that the treatises expose on the subject: can one affirm that it is the time that the dilates?

(NOTE: If we want to document the statement that T2> T1, we can follow the following steps: Note that (c2) (speed of light = 300,000 km / second) will always be much larger than the speed (v2) , therefore, its quotient will have a value much lower than the value 1. By subtracting the value of this quotient to "1" we obtain a number less than unity.Therefore the value that will be obtained inside the sign of the radical will be a figure (L) when dividing "1" by a decimal value lower than one we will always obtain a value greater than one, so that (T2) is equal to (L) times (T1). )

 Genesis of a utopia. A wrong interpretation of mental experiment

By means of a mathematical approach, made in the previous paragraph, we have just found the following relation

                                                   td = (L). tp

and of this expression, taking into account that

                                                       (L)> 1

we justified that:

                                                        td > tp

In the interpretation of this mathematical inequality is where the error is produced that leads to admit the utopia of "time dilation".

The first doubt that we have is: If we had said that we had to operate with SYNCHRONIZED movements, in such a way that the time of the path of the ray at any

moment must be the same, look from where it is looked at, that is that they must be considered SIMULTANEOUS movements, we ask ourselves: how is it that equality (td) = (tp) does not occur? Why does the Lorentz factor (L) intervene? ... and here is where the confusion appears.

The idea to be interpreted is that it is the expression of an EQUIVALENCE of observations between two different types of time. It is not a question of calculating the value of the TRANSFORMATION of one type of time in another. So instead of using the mathematical sign of equality we must use the mathematical sign of equivalence:

                                                        td ˜ (L). tp

To this expression we must give the approach that it is an EQUIVALENCE in the result of two DIFFERENT TYPES of time, observed by a person who contemplates, as if it were a real experiment, the "mental experiment" of the train car.

(NOTE: We might call you: EQUALITY OF GENEROS, when considering two different types of TIME)

This person values ??each of the two times using the above expression. From here comes the criterion of comparison. We can interpret it as if it were ourselves that we are recreating to contemplate as if it were a real experiment what was created in the minds of other people, that is, the designers of the "toy" called mental experiment.

The next figure pretends to represent what we are saying.              

The "third eye" appears, ours, which is the one that allows us to observe the two actions: that of the operator (O1) and that of the operator (O2). With this observation, "out of the game" we can appreciate that time DOES NOT DILATE. We value time in two concurrent but different circumstances.

Now the observer of the "real" phenomenon is us and for this reason the two other characters we call them "operarios"

The mistaken idea of TRANSFORMATION of times and not precisely that of EQUIVALENCE of observation of times is the one that prevails in the treaties on the subject that occupies to us and is the one that leads to dream with utopias.

In order to focus ideas, we must inform that until now the subject of the mental experiment of the "railway car" or, perhaps rather, how a misinterpretation of this mental experiment, is finished, leads to the referred fallacy.

Transmission of information. Systems (GPS)

It is now a matter of studying how the information of an Event occurring in a particular Situation of outer space is transferred to another Situation of this space.

The following figure is intended to be a representation of the above statement.


In a certain SITUATION of the outer space appeared a certain Event (E). The environment in which it was produced is identified as a Fixed Reference System (SRF)

This (E) has had a certain duration (tp). The observation of this Event is made from the point (F) contained in the environment of a Mobile Reference System (SRM) with respect to the said (SRF)

The observer located at (F) will take a time (tr), travel time, to visualize the occurrence of the event (E).

Just as we did in the mental experiment of the "train car" in which we look for the relationship between the time of the phenomenon (tet) and the time of displacement (td) of the car, we are interested in finding the relationship between the (tP) and the travel time (tr) of the INFORMATION

In this case we will impose the Simultaneity and. in consequence, the equality of values:

As we said in commenting on the "train wagon" experiment, we should consider the following expression of EQUIVALENCE:

tr ˜ (L). tp

in which the time of travel (tr) of the image of the event that has taken place intervenes. It makes us see the DELAY that exists between the appearance of an event and the perception of it from another SITUATION of space

The correct interpretation of the response given by the atomic watches to the physical phenomenon of the enlargement of time

Just as we have talked about the correct INTERPRETATION of the result obtained in the mental experiment of the "train car", we now have to talk about the correct INTERRUPTION of the response obtained when performing checks using atomic clocks.

It is understood that we do not doubt the validity of the data obtained. What we doubt is the validity of its interpretation, which leads us to admit the fallacy of the "dilation of time" We must reason as follows:

                        In the "MENTAL EXPERIMENT"

                        proposed an error is made



                       we pass on this error of interpretation

                       when moving it in an EXPERIMENT

                       PHYSICAL, made using atomic clocks.

If we start from an error of interpretation of the mental experiment on which we rely, the interpretation of the answers obtained by applying a verification test will be contaminated. It is not that atomic clocks are a defective tool to measure what we propose. Perhaps they tell us what we do not want to interpret ...

The use of atomic clocks only detects the time difference (tr) - (tp) that must exist between the two observation platforms (SRM) and (SRF). Nothing of "time dilation"

Finally, we suggest you read from our essay: Relativity Theory and fallacy time dilate

(Posted 4-24-2014) Link: :

the paragraphs:

Leer más:

To complete the topic of the expansion of time, we suggest the reader to read our Test: Theory of relativity especial. His misinterpretation

Link :

The formulas of the transformations of Lorentz

If we wanted to justify the reason for the difference (infinitesimal) denoted by the atomic clocks located in an Inertial Reference System and, furthermore, to justify that the answer obtained is NOT due to the concept of "dilation" of time, we believe we have achieved it. We could finish our Essay here.

Nevertheless we think it useful to add the topic of the formulas of the "Transformations of Lorentz" to try to dispel any doubt that the reader may have.

Although we will see that the concept of Lorentz Factor (L) will appear, it is necessary that we have clear distinction following:

So far we have studied the observation of an EVENT from a (SRM) that has occurred in a (SRF). In this study we have justified the DESPASE of times that occurs and not precisely because the time of the Event is lengthened. Simply, the tour time (tr) of the VISION of the Event is longer than the OWN TIME (tp) of the Event


Now we will analyze the quantification, from a (SRM), that must be given to the variables time (t) and space (e) of a certain PHYSICAL LAW that governs in a certain PHENOMENO that is given in a (SRF).

Perhaps this definition becomes clearer when we read in the Essay:

Theory of relativity and the fallacy of the "dilation of time"

their paragraphs from 10 to 15 In them you will find:

- What are the formulas of the Lorentz Transformations

-A little history

- A mathematical approach that the author of the Essay proposes to deduce and get to obtain the said formulas.



If the reader wants to go deeper into the subject of the formulas of the Lorentz Transformations, you could read the Essay by the same author:

"Theory of relativity. The format of Lorentz´s transformations delat the falacia of the time dilatation" (Posted 17 January 2017)


In this essay the author to get to build the formulas, analyzes the functions performed by the variables that make up the same.

That is, if we had previously said "deduce the expressions of the same", we now say that we deduce the function of its variables by observing the expressions of these formulas.

 Other Essays published by the same author:

Theory of Relativity.- Doubts about the General Theory.- Doubts about the Principle of Equivalence (Published 31-3-2017)

Link :

In Spanish

Teoria de la relatividad. Falacias y utopías (Editado 5-10-2011)

Link :

Teoria de la relatividad. Un planteamiento incorrersto en la obtención de la

Formula: E = m c2

 Link :





Enrique Martinez Viladesau